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The majors' "clearance" rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents' timely access to top-quality films; the second feature allowed them to promote quantity instead. The low-budget picture of the s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywood's Golden Age. The major studios , at first resistant to the double feature, soon adapted. All established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature market. Block booking became standard practice: With the B films rented at a flat fee rather than the box office percentage basis of A films , rates could be set virtually guaranteeing the profitability of every B movie.
The parallel practice of blind bidding largely freed the majors from worrying about their Bs' quality—even when booking in less than seasonal blocks, exhibitors had to buy most pictures sight unseen. Poverty Row studios, from modest outfits like Mascot Pictures , Tiffany Pictures , and Sono Art-World Wide Pictures down to shoestring operations, made exclusively B movies, serials, and other shorts, and also distributed totally independent productions and imported films. In no position to directly block book, they mostly sold regional distribution exclusivity to " states rights " firms, which in turn peddled blocks of movies to exhibitors, typically six or more pictures featuring the same star a relative status on Poverty Row.
In contrast to the Big Five majors, Universal and Columbia had few or no theaters, though they did have top-rank film distribution exchanges. In the standard Golden Age model, the industry's top product, the A films, premiered at a small number of select first-run houses in major cities. Double features were not the rule at these prestigious venues. As described by Edward Jay Epstein , "During these first runs, films got their reviews, garnered publicity, and generated the word of mouth that served as the principal form of advertising.
At the larger local venues controlled by the majors, movies might turn over on a weekly basis. At the thousands of smaller, independent theaters, programs often changed two or three times a week. To meet the constant demand for new B product, the low end of Poverty Row turned out a stream of micro-budget movies rarely much more than sixty minutes long; these were known as "quickies" for their tight production schedules—as short as four days.
Millions of Americans went to their local theaters as a matter of course: The introduction of sound had driven costs higher: The leading studios made not only clear-cut A and B films, but also movies classifiable as "programmers" also known as "in-betweeners" or "intermediates". As Taves describes, "Depending on the prestige of the theater and the other material on the double bill, a programmer could show up at the top or bottom of the marquee. In , B movie production at Warner Bros. The unit was headed by Bryan Foy , known as the "Keeper of the Bs".
Wurtzel was similarly in charge of more than twenty movies a year during the late s. A number of the top Poverty Row firms consolidated: Sono Art joined another company to create Monogram Pictures early in the decade. In , Monogram, Mascot, and several smaller studios merged to establish Republic Pictures.
The former heads of Monogram soon sold off their Republic shares and set up a new Monogram production house. Less sturdy Poverty Row concerns—with a penchant for grand sobriquets like Conquest, Empire, Imperial, and Peerless—continued to churn out dirt-cheap quickies. Taves estimates that half of the films produced by the eight majors in the s were B movies. The Western was by far the predominant B genre in both the s and, to a lesser degree, the s. Series of various genres, featuring recurrent, title-worthy characters or name actors in familiar roles, were particularly popular during the first decade of sound film.
As with serials, however, many series were intended to attract young people—a theater that twin-billed part-time might run a "balanced" or entirely youth-oriented double feature as a matinee and then a single film for a more mature audience at night. In the words of one industry report, afternoon moviegoers, "composed largely of housewives and children, want quantity for their money while the evening crowds want 'something good and not too much of it. Kildare - Dr. Gillespie chronicles had leading stars and budgets that would have been A-level at most of the lesser studios. The double feature, never universal, was still the prevailing exhibition model: Restrictions were also placed on the majors' ability to enforce blind bidding.
Selznick brought his bloated-budget spectacle Duel in the Sun to market with heavy nationwide promotion and wide release. The distribution strategy was a major success, despite what was widely perceived as the movie's poor quality. Considerations beside cost made the line between A and B movies ambiguous. Films shot on B-level budgets were occasionally marketed as A pictures or emerged as sleeper hits: Programmers, with their flexible exhibition role, were ambiguous by definition. Around the same time, Republic launched a similar effort under the "Premiere" rubric.
Warners' former "Keeper of the Bs", Brian Foy, was installed as production chief. Lewton produced such moody, mysterious films as Cat People , I Walked with a Zombie , and The Body Snatcher , directed by Jacques Tourneur , Robert Wise , and others who would become renowned only later in their careers or entirely in retrospect.
Though many of the best-known film noirs were A-level productions, most s pictures in the mode were either of the ambiguous programmer type or destined straight for the bottom of the bill. In the decades since, these cheap entertainments, generally dismissed at the time, have become some of the most treasured products of Hollywood's Golden Age. In one sample year, , RKO produced along with several noir programmers and A pictures, two straight B noirs: Desperate and The Devil Thumbs a Ride.
Three majors beside RKO contributed a total of five more. Along with these eighteen unambiguous B noirs, an additional dozen or so noir programmers came out of Hollywood. Jean Hersholt played Dr. Christian in six films between and Christian was a standard entry: Down in Poverty Row, low budgets led to less palliative fare. The little studio had its own house auteur: Ulmer was known as "the Capra of PRC".
In , a Supreme Court ruling in a federal antitrust suit against the majors outlawed block booking and led to the Big Five divesting their theater chains. With audiences draining away to television and studios scaling back production schedules, the classic double feature vanished from many American theaters during the s. The major studios promoted the benefits of recycling, offering former headlining movies as second features in the place of traditional B films. After barely inching forward in the s, the average U. The first prominent victim of the changing market was Eagle-Lion, which released its last films in By , the old Monogram brand had disappeared, the company having adopted the identity of its higher-end subsidiary, Allied Artists.
The following year, Allied released Hollywood's last B series Westerns. Non-series B Westerns continued to appear for a few more years, but Republic Pictures, long associated with cheap sagebrush sagas, was out of the filmmaking business by decade's end. The age of the hour-long feature film was past; 70 minutes was now roughly the minimum. While the Golden Age-style second feature was dying, B movie was still used to refer to any low-budget genre film featuring relatively unheralded performers sometimes referred to as B actors. The term retained its earlier suggestion that such movies relied on formulaic plots, "stock" character types, and simplistic action or unsophisticated comedy.
Ida Lupino , a leading actress, established herself as Hollywood's sole female director of the era. Its source is pure pulp , one of Mickey Spillane 's Mike Hammer novels, but Robert Aldrich 's direction is self-consciously aestheticized. The result is a brutal genre picture that also evokes contemporary anxieties about what was often spoken of simply as the Bomb.
The fear of nuclear war with the Soviet Union, along with less expressible qualms about radioactive fallout from America's own atomic tests, energized many of the era's genre films. Science fiction, horror, and various hybrids of the two were now of central economic importance to the low-budget end of the business.
Most down-market films of the type—like many of those produced by William Alland at Universal such as Creature from the Black Lagoon and Sam Katzman at Columbia including It Came from Beneath the Sea —provided little more than thrills, though their special effects could be impressive. Director Don Siegel 's Invasion of the Body Snatchers , released by Allied Artists, treats conformist pressures and the evil of banality in haunting, allegorical fashion.
Gordon , is both a monster movie that happens to depict the horrific effects of radiation exposure and "a ferocious cold-war fable [that] spins Korea , the army's obsessive secrecy, and America's post-war growth into one fantastic whole". The Amazing Colossal Man was released by a new company whose name was much bigger than its budgets. Nicholson and Samuel Z. American International helped keep the original-release double bill alive through paired packages of its films: When Hot Rod Gang turned a profit, hot rod horror was given a try: Ghost of Dragstrip Hollow David Cook credits AIP with leading the way "in demographic exploitation , target marketing , and saturation booking, all of which would become standard procedure for the majors in planning and releasing their mass-market 'event' films" by the late s.
In , a young filmmaker named Roger Corman received his first screen credits as writer and associate producer of Allied Artists' Highway Dragnet. Corman would go on to direct over fifty feature films through As of , he remained active as a producer, with more than movies to his credit. Often referred to as the "King of the Bs", Corman has said that "to my way of thinking, I never made a 'B' movie in my life", as the traditional B movie was dying out when he began making pictures. He prefers to describe his metier as "low-budget exploitation films".
In the late s, William Castle became known as the great innovator of the B movie publicity gimmick.
Of Atomic's nine announced films, not one has a big name". The Moviegoing Experience, — Please contact support. The growth of the cable television industry also helped support the low-budget film industry, as many B movies quickly wound up as "filler" material for hour cable channels or were made expressly for that purpose. Building on the achievement of B genre predecessors like Invasion of the Body Snatchers in its subtextual exploration of social and political issues, it doubled as a highly effective thriller and an incisive allegory for both the Vietnam War and domestic racial conflicts.
The creature feature The Tingler featured Castle's most famous gimmick, Percepto: The postwar drive-in theater boom was vital to the expanding independent B movie industry. In January , there were 96 drive-ins in the United States; a decade later, there were more than 3, The phenomenon of the drive-in movie became one of the defining symbols of American popular culture in the s.
At the same time, many local television stations began showing B genre films in late-night slots, popularizing the notion of the midnight movie. Increasingly, American-made genre films were joined by foreign movies acquired at low cost and, where necessary, dubbed for the U. In , distributor Joseph E.
Levine financed the shooting of new footage with American actor Raymond Burr that was edited into the Japanese sci-fi horror film Godzilla. In , Levine's Embassy Pictures bought the worldwide rights to Hercules , a cheaply made Italian movie starring American-born bodybuilder Steve Reeves. Just as valuable to the bottom line, it was even more successful overseas. The AIP-style dual genre package was the new model. In July , the latest Joseph E. Levine sword-and-sandals import, Hercules Unchained , opened at neighborhood theaters in New York. A suspense film, Terror Is a Man , ran as a "co-feature" with a now familiar sort of exploitation gimmick: It was clearly an A film by the standards of both director and studio, with the longest shooting schedule and biggest budget Corman had ever enjoyed.
But it is generally seen as a B movie: With the loosening of industry censorship constraints , the s saw a major expansion in the commercial viability of a variety of B movie subgenres that became known collectively as exploitation films. The combination of intensive and gimmick-laden publicity with movies featuring vulgar subject matter and often outrageous imagery dated back decades—the term had originally defined truly fringe productions, made at the lowest depths of Poverty Row or entirely outside the Hollywood system. Many graphically depicted the wages of sin in the context of promoting prudent lifestyle choices, particularly " sexual hygiene ".
Audiences might see explicit footage of anything from a live birth to a ritual circumcision. With the majors having exited traditional B production and exploitation-style promotion becoming standard practice at the lower end of the industry, "exploitation" became a way to refer to the entire field of low-budget genre films. Exploitation movies in the original sense continued to appear: Best known was Russ Meyer , who released his first successful narrative nudie, the comic Immoral Mr.
Teas , in Five years later, Meyer came out with his breakthrough film, Lorna , which combined sex, violence, and a dramatic storyline. Crafted for constant titillation but containing no nudity, it was aimed at the same "passion pit" drive-in circuit that screened AIP teen movies with wink-wink titles like Beach Blanket Bingo and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini , starring Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon.
One of the most influential films of the era, on Bs and beyond, was Paramount's Psycho. And, as William Paul notes, this move into the horror genre by respected director Alfred Hitchcock was made, "significantly, with the lowest-budgeted film of his American career and the least glamorous stars. Lewis's business partner David F. Friedman drummed up publicity by distributing vomit bags to theatergoers—the sort of gimmick Castle had mastered—and arranging for an injunction against the film in Sarasota, Florida—the sort of problem exploitation films had long run up against, except Friedman had planned it.
Imports of Hammer Film's increasingly explicit horror movies and Italian gialli , highly stylized pictures mixing sexploitation and ultraviolence, would fuel this trend. The Production Code was officially scrapped in , to be replaced by the first version of the modern rating system. One was a high-budget Paramount production, directed by the celebrated Roman Polanski. Produced by B horror veteran William Castle, Rosemary's Baby was the first upscale Hollywood picture in the genre in three decades. Building on the achievement of B genre predecessors like Invasion of the Body Snatchers in its subtextual exploration of social and political issues, it doubled as a highly effective thriller and an incisive allegory for both the Vietnam War and domestic racial conflicts.
In this transformed commercial context, work like Russ Meyer's gained a new legitimacy. In May , the most important exploitation movie of the era premiered at the Cannes Film Festival. The project was first taken by one of its cocreators, Peter Fonda , to American International. The idea Fonda pitched would combine those two proven themes. AIP was intrigued but balked at giving his collaborator, Dennis Hopper , also a studio alumnus, free directorial rein. In the late s and early s, a new generation of low-budget film companies emerged that drew from all the different lines of exploitation as well as the sci-fi and teen themes that had been a mainstay since the s.
The major studios' top product was continuing to inflate in running time—in , the ten biggest earners averaged In , Corman had a producorial hand in five movies averaging He played a similar part in five films originally released in , two for AIP and three for his own New World: The biggest studio in the low-budget field remained a leader in exploitation's growth. Reviewing Sisters , Pauline Kael observed that its "limp technique doesn't seem to matter to the people who want their gratuitous gore.
One of blaxploitation's biggest stars was Pam Grier , who began her film career with a bit part in Russ Meyer's Beyond the Valley of the Dolls Hill also directed her best-known performances, in two AIP blaxploitation films: Coffy and Foxy Brown Blaxploitation was the first exploitation genre in which the major studios were central. Indeed, the United Artists release Cotton Comes to Harlem , directed by Ossie Davis , is seen as the first significant film of the type. Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song is also perhaps the most outrageous example of the form: The days of six quickies for a nickel were gone, but a continuity of spirit was evident.
The crime-based plot and often seedy settings would have suited a straightforward exploitation film or an old-school B noir. The first three features directed by Larry Cohen , Bone , Black Caesar , and Hell Up in Harlem , were all nominally blaxploitation movies, but Cohen used them as vehicles for a satirical examination of race relations and the wages of dog-eat-dog capitalism. Shivers , Rabid , The Brood In the early s, the growing practice of screening nonmainstream motion pictures as late shows, with the goal of building a cult film audience, brought the midnight movie concept home to the cinema, now in a countercultural setting—something like a drive-in movie for the hip.
The midnight movie success of low-budget pictures made entirely outside the studio system, like John Waters ' Pink Flamingos , with its campy spin on exploitation, spurred the development of the independent film movement. Even as Rocky Horror generated its own subcultural phenomenon, it contributed to the mainstreaming of the theatrical midnight movie. Asian martial arts films began appearing as imports regularly during the s. These " kung fu " films as they were often called, whatever martial art they featured, were popularized in the United States by the Hong Kong—produced movies of Bruce Lee and marketed to the same audience targeted by AIP and New World.
As Roger Ebert explained in one review, "Horror and exploitation films almost always turn a profit if they're brought in at the right price. So they provide a good starting place for ambitious would-be filmmakers who can't get more conventional projects off the ground. Just as Hooper had learned from Romero's work, Halloween , in turn, largely followed the model of Black Christmas , directed by Deathdream ' s Bob Clark.
On television, the parallels between the weekly series that became the mainstay of prime-time programming and the Hollywood series films of an earlier day had long been clear. As production of TV movies expanded with the introduction of the ABC Movie of the Week in , soon followed by the dedication of other network slots to original features, time and financial factors shifted the medium progressively into B picture territory.
Television films inspired by recent scandals—such as The Ordeal of Patty Hearst , which premiered a month after her release from prison in —harkened all the way back to the s and such movies as Human Wreckage and When Love Grows Cold , FBO pictures made swiftly in the wake of celebrity misfortunes. Nightmare in Badham County headed straight into the realm of road-tripping-girls-in-redneck-bondage exploitation. The reverberations of Easy Rider could be felt in such pictures, as well as in a host of theatrical exploitation films. But its greatest influence on the fate of the B movie was less direct—by , the major studios were catching on to the commercial potential of genres once largely consigned to the bargain basement.
Rosemary's Baby had been a big hit, but it had little in common with the exploitation style. Warner Bros. In William Paul's description, it is also "the film that really established gross-out as a mode of expression for mainstream cinema. The Exorcist made cruelty respectable. By the end of the decade, the exploitation booking strategy of opening films simultaneously in hundreds to thousands of theaters became standard industry practice. Described by Paul as "essentially an American-International teenybopper pic with a lot more spit and polish", it was 's third-biggest film and, likewise, by far the highest-earning teen-themed movie yet made.
Most of the B movie production houses founded during the exploitation era collapsed or were subsumed by larger companies as the field's financial situation changed in the early s. Even a comparatively cheap, efficiently made genre picture intended for theatrical release began to cost millions of dollars, as the major movie studios steadily moved into the production of expensive genre movies, raising audience expectations for spectacular action sequences and realistic special effects. Their disaster plots and dialogue were B-grade at best; from an industry perspective, however, these were pictures firmly rooted in a tradition of star-stuffed extravaganzas.
The Exorcist had demonstrated the drawing power of big-budget, effects-laden horror. But the tidal shift in the majors' focus owed largely to the enormous success of three films: Steven Spielberg 's creature feature Jaws and George Lucas's space opera Star Wars had each, in turn, become the highest-grossing film in motion picture history. Even as the U. Double features were now literally history—almost impossible to find except at revival houses. One of the first leading casualties of the new economic regime was venerable B studio Allied Artists, which declared bankruptcy in April